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動物

108-109 年度玉山國家公園熊鷹族群生態與周邊布農部落之關聯研究計畫

中文摘要
熊鷹(Nisaetus nipalensis) 為本島體格最為壯碩的森林性猛禽,為了解其在中高海拔的生態習性,2019-2020年期間於玉山國家公園進行調查,期間目擊22隻不同個體(39隻次)。2019年9月於中之關繫放亞成年雌鳥(1931),2020年6月又繫放一隻成年雌鳥(1930),各追蹤1年2個月和5個月。1931活動範圍(MCP)為424.4 km2,涵蓋1930的活動空間(13 km2 ),但定位點多與1930錯開。兩者對原始闊葉林有最高的選擇(p<0.01),其次選擇人工林,對針闊葉林和針葉林的選擇較低,1931對農地的利用略高於預期。兩隻雌鳥活動模式相仿,高峰落在上午10-11時,晴天下每日飛行時間僅49-52分鐘,屬守株待兔型猛禽。飛行速度平均34 km/hr,俯衝時可達88 km/hr。2020年3月意外發現一處林鵰(Ictinaetus malayensis)巢於五葉松(Pinus morrisonicola Hayata)上,林鵰幼鳥於5月24日(日齡約62天)短暫離巢又回窩,直到6月17日(日齡約85天)才正式離開巢樹。林鵰幼鳥每月活動範圍逐漸擴大,截至11月已達29 km2,1931的活動範圍也大抵避開其活動範圍。林鵰在清晨即有明顯的飛行活動,活動高峰落在上午9-11時,晴天下滯空時間一天可達3.8小時,曾連續飛行長達100分鐘。飛行速度平均 23 km/hr,俯衝時達50 km/hr,慢於熊鷹。推估玉山國家公園境內棲息142-230隻熊鷹。訪查高雄市桃源區梅山村與南投縣信義鄉東埔村養雞戶,黃鼠狼(Mustela sibirica)、蛇類、流浪犬貓最為主要侵擾物種,猛禽類以鳳頭蒼鷹(Accipiter trivirgatus)最為擾人。建議持續熊鷹與林鵰捕捉與追蹤工作,拍攝生態紀錄片、出版解說叢書,日後可更新南橫地區中之關和塔塔加地區停車場解說牌,增加熊鷹和林鵰的生態資料。
英文摘要
To study the ecological habits of mid-elevation Mountain Hawk Eagle (MHE) (Nisaetus nipalensis), the largest forest raptor in Taiwan, we conducted research in Yushan National Park during 2019-2020. We witnessed 22 different birds (39 times) during the study period. A young female (1931) was banded in September 2019, and another adult female (1930) was banded in June 2020. Presently the two birds have been satellite-tracking for 14 months and 5 months respectively. The 1931’s home range (MCP), 424.4 km2, covered that of 1930 (13 km2) but avoided it. Both showed significant choice for primitive broad-leaved forests (p<0.01), followed by plantation forests, but avoid selecting coniferous broad-leaved forests and coniferous forests. The use of farmland by 1931 was slightly higher than expected. Activity patterns of the two birds look similar, peaking at 10-11 am, with only 49-52 minutes on the wing. The flight speed averaged 34 km/hr, and diving can reach up to 88 km/hr. In March of 2020, we accidentally discovered a Black Eagle(BE) (Ictinaetus malayensis) nestling on a Taiwan pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hayata). It fledged on 17th June (85 days old). The young gradually expanded its home range by month, with a MCP of 29 km2 in total, which was also avoided by the 1931. The young Black eagle tend to fly earlier in the early morning than did MHE, with a peaked activity at 9-11 am. The young eagle spent about3.8 hours in flight a day under a clear sky, and a flight bout could last up to 100 minutes. The mean flight speed is 23 km/hr, and it reached 50 km/hr when diving. It is estimated that there are 142-230 pair of MHE living in the park. We interviewed chicken farmers at Meishan Village, Taoyuan District, Kaohsiung City, and Dongpu Village, Xinyi Township, Nantou County. The Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica), snakes, dogs and cats were the most culprit mammals, while it is Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) among raptor. It is recommended that further work on capturing and tracking the MHE and BE is needed along with filming and book-publishing. Additionally, it is suggested that contents of information board about the two raptors should be updated at the park’s parking lots.
基本資料
  • 性質: 委託研究計畫
  • 計畫編號: 1324
  • 辦理方式: 委託研究
  • 主管機關: 玉山國家公園管理處
  • 計畫期間: 108年1月至109年12月
  • 執行機關: 國立屏東科技大學
  • 年度: 109
  • 計畫經費: 185萬8千元
  • 領域: 自然生態保育
  • 主持人: 孫元勳
  • 中文關鍵字: 熊鷹、林鵰、活動範圍、活動模式、棲地選擇、野生動物危害
  • 英文關鍵字:Mountain hawk eagle, Black eagle, home range, habitat select, Wildlife hazards