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玉山國家公園塔塔加地區黃喉貂空間與族群生態調查計畫

Spatial and Population Ecology of Yellow-Throated Marten (Martes flavigula chrysospila) in Tataka, Yushan National Park
中文摘要
黃喉貂(Martes flavigula chrysospila)在台灣為特有亞種,近年來在玉山國家公園塔塔加遊憩區內遊客目擊黃喉貂的頻率增加,因此遊客、其攜帶的寵物及遊蕩犬貓與黃喉貂族群接觸的可能性較往年高,可能衍生潛在的衝突及疾病傳播風險。本研究延續 2019 年研究計畫,針對其活動範圍、族群數量、社會結構及與遊客的互動等方面進行調查與評估。研究方法包括架設自動相機監測族群活動、捕捉繫放黃喉貂個體進行採樣分析及後續追蹤,同時也配合遊客、志工與工作人員的目擊紀錄進行統計與資料分析。今年度共計架設 19 台獸徑型監測相機,並從 5 月至 9 月進行捕捉繫放。包含 2019 年計畫捕捉個體共繫放 14 隻個體(5 雌 9 雄)。雌性平均體重為 1.56 ± 0.11 kg,雄性則為 2.4 ± 0.23 kg。兩年間透過 VHF 追蹤及成功下載的 GPS 資料共計得到 1904 個定位點位,利用最小凸多邊形法計算雌貂平均活動範圍為 6.5 ± 5.53 km 2 (n=4),雄貂則為 33.6 ± 38.97 km 2 (n=9),且雌性的活動範圍重疊程度較雄性低。此外,捕捉到的個體中有多群完全由雄性組成,加上被捕捉個體性別比例懸殊,顯示黃喉貂的社會結構有別於一般食肉目動物。透過繫放個體、自動監測相機與目擊記錄估算族群數量得知此地區的黃喉貂至少有 11 群,數量可能超過 20 隻。但由於黃喉貂活動範圍較大,需要釐清其實際數量是否有增加,而非受到食物吸引聚集在塔塔加周邊。
英文摘要
Yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula chrysospila) is an endemic subspecies in Taiwan. In the past few years, the number of reported sighting of yellowthroated marten increased significantly in Tataka, a recreation area in the Yushan National Park. When the contact between visitors, the pets they brought and yellowthroated marten increase, conflicts and risk of disease transmission between them might also rise. As a result, it is crucial to understand the cause of higher sightings and the impact of tourism on the population and distribution of yellow-throated marten. This study, along with the survey started in 2019, focused on investigating the population, home range, activity pattern, social structure of yellow-throated marten and their interaction with visitors in the Tataka recreation area. Nineteen trail cameras and 15 traps were implemented, and 14 individuals, including nine males and five females, were captured, sampled and radio-collared in 2019 and 2020. Sightings of yellowthroated marten being reported from tourist, volunteer and the staff working in Tataka recreation area were recorded for further analysis. The average weight of female and male was 1.56 ± 0.11 kg and 2.4 ± 0.23 kg, respectively. Based on the images or video recorded by trail cameras, it was found that yellow-throated marten remained active from 6 am to 6 pm and were most active between 6 to 8 am and 4 to 6 pm. Results from the radio and GIS tracking showed that the average home range of female (n=4) and male (n=9) individuals was 6.5 ± 5.53 km2 and 33.6 ± 38.97 km2 , based on 100% of minimum convex polygon. The home range of one of the GIS-tracked males was 132.6 km2 , which was the largest record ever reported in this species. In general, males had a higher proportion of overlap of their home ranges than females, and most of the individuals that were captured or sighted in groups in this study were males, with only one group consist of female and male. The result of this study indicated that the social structure of yellow-throated marten was different from most of the species in Mustelidae where males usually dispersed and lived solitarily according to previous studies. From March 2019 to November 2020, 159 sightings were collected overall. Based on the pairs or individuals that were identified through trail cameras, tracking and sighting records, it was believed that at least 11 pairs and over 20 individuals utilized Tataka recreation area as part of their habitats. However, the cause of higher frequency of sightings remains to be investigated, and the impact of tourism and food left behind by tourists to the distribution of this species should be monitored and evaluated continuously.
基本資料
  • 計畫編號: 1323
  • 辦理方式: 委託辦理
  • 主管機關: 玉山國家公園管理處
  • 計畫期間: 109年1月至109年12月
  • 執行機關: 野聲環境生態顧問有限公司
  • 年度: 109
  • 計畫經費: 90萬5,000元
  • 領域: 自然生態保育
  • 主持人: 姜博仁
  • 中文關鍵字: 黃喉貂、塔塔加、自動相機監測、繫放追蹤、經營管理
  • 英文關鍵字:yellow-throated marten, tataka, camera trap, tracking, population management