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玉山國家公園

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玉山
• 中文計畫名稱
玉山國家公園楠梓仙溪林道生態資源與經營管理之研究
• 計畫英文名稱
Studies on the Ecological Resources and Management of Nantzuhsienchi Forestry Road in Yushan National Park
• 計畫編號
1110
• 方式
委託研究
• 執行機構
台灣生態學會
• 年度
093 年
• 主持人 楊國禎
• 中文關鍵字
楠梓仙溪林道、梅蘭鞍部、楠梓仙溪工作站、生態保護區、動物生
• 英文關鍵字
• 中文摘要
一、研究緣起
楠梓仙溪林道位於玉山國家公園西界一般管制區,林道全長34.5km,海拔高度介,720m 至2,740m 之間。林道末端的梅蘭鞍部,屬於玉山國家公園的遊憩區,但至今尚無開發。目前林道沿線有大量珍貴稀有與瀕臨絕種的野生動物,以及全臺灣最大面積的臺灣雲杉林與廣大的暖溫帶常綠闊葉林,皆為國家公園重要的自然資源。本研究針對楠梓仙溪林道沿線的自然生態與人文史蹟進行資料蒐集與現況調查,嘗試重新研擬適合該區的經營管理模式。
二、研究方法及過程
本研究區域沿楠梓仙溪林道進行,共包含嘉義林區管理處玉山事業區的第24、25、26、27、28、29、43、42 與64 林班。研究方式以農林航空測量所於民國六十八年拍攝的航空相片基本圖與九十一年所拍攝的正射影像圖為基礎,判釋土地覆蓋型及其變遷。以楠梓仙溪林道沿線主要林型與植物組成為基礎,繪製植物社會剖面圖,並標示暖溫帶闊葉林永久樣區位置。關於動植物資源,以收集文獻配合現地調查的方式進行。對原住民、林務人員與愛
玉子採集作業人員以及巡邏人員進行訪問,彙整出楠梓仙溪林道的人文與自然史蹟並標示楠梓仙溪林道沿線人文史蹟位置於地圖上。根據野外調查與所蒐集的資料,提出一套適合本區特性的保育與解說制度。
三、重要發現
1.植物生態資源:第26、27、28、29 與43 林班地的森林,呈現完成且連續的分佈;而梅蘭鞍部附近的森林雖然破碎,但動態的資料顯示該區森林正以每年增加0.34%的速度逐漸拓展。林道沿線植被類型約可分為臺灣鐵杉雲杉林帶、檜木林帶與闊葉林帶三種類型,27 種植物優勢社會。其中調查區附近共有25 片面積大小不等的臺灣雲杉林,在廣東丸山最高峰至九溪山間的4 片臺灣雲杉林,面積較大,佔調查臺灣雲杉總面積的51.5%。植物
種類方面,林道沿線記錄到的植物種類共計有113 科295 屬492 種,屬稀有種者有24 種。
2.動物生態資源:林道沿線共計登錄了15 科31 種哺乳動物,其中屬於農委會公告為珍貴稀有保育類野生動物者有台灣獼猴、黃喉貂、白鼻心、山羌、水鹿與台灣長鬃山羊等6 種,屬於瀕臨絕種野生動物則有黑熊與雲豹2 種;林道沿線登錄的鳥類資料共計有19 科54 種,公告為瀕臨絕種保育類者有熊鷹、藍腹鷳、帝雉、黃魚鴞、灰林梟及褐林梟等6 種,公告為珍貴稀有
的保育類有鳳頭蒼鷹等8 種。另由整理的文獻顯示目前該區缺乏昆蟲與兩棲、爬蟲類的資料。
3.人文史蹟:(1)楠梓仙溪工作站由9 棟硬體設施所構成,於1953 年至1989年執行伐木與造林的業務,1989 年後楠梓仙溪工作站撤站。工作站目前呈半荒廢的現況,僅林務人員、林道維修人員與學術研究人員利用主體建物與寢室進行休息。(2)楠梓仙溪林道附近愛玉子的採收作業從農曆十月起至隔年的二月止,採收區域為玉山事業區第1、3、30、31、33、35 林班,均屬國家公園區外,現有愛玉子採收制度,於國家公園區內可能會發生盜伐林木、獵捕動物等違規行為。(3)楠梓仙溪林道10k 附近,發現一具疑似當年提煉樟腦所遺下的遺址。該遺址直徑範圍約20m,有一長約60cm、寬約30cm、高約30cm 由石板所築成的灶體一座。
四、主要建議事項
1.楠梓仙溪林道沿線具有豐富的生態資源,因此建議將玉山事業區第26、27、28、29、43、42 與64 林班地變更為生態保護區;梅蘭鞍部從國家公園成立後即無人進入開發,森林生態逐漸復甦,因此建議梅蘭遊憩區也應變更為生態保護區。第24 與25 林班地因鄰近塔塔加遊憩區及玉山主峰登山步道,且受到楠梓仙溪的切割而形成分離的情形,故建議第24 與25 林班地原本屬於一般管制區的範圍不予變更,但區內原始林為少數可及性高且保
存完整的森林,因此建議此區可當作科學研究保留區域。
2. 楠梓仙溪工作站附近的暖溫帶闊葉林目前已經規劃為15 公頃森林永久樣區,楠梓仙溪工作站已符合成立永久研究站的條件,因此建議楠梓仙溪工作站全區應做為楠梓仙溪保育研究站,並提供成為解說員訓練場所。
3.由於維管束植物物種登錄已漸完善,建議未來可朝向森林結構、功能與動態等面向的研究,即森林永久樣區各學科的研究。
4.昆蟲與兩棲、爬蟲類的種類登錄為目前該區較缺乏的資料,建議未來該區動物調查可著重此一方面。
• 英文摘要
1. Study Background:
Nantzuhsienchi Forestry Road, 34.5km of total length and at an altitude from
1,720 to 2,740 meter, is across in west general restricted area of Yushan National
Park. Meilan Saddle, recreational area of Yushan National Park, is located at the
end of Nantzuhsienchi Forestry Road, but this area remains undevelopment today.
Many rare and endangered wild animals were discovered along this road. Largest
Picea forest of Taiwan and extensive area of temperate evergreen broad-leaved
forest also appear along this road. The object of this study was to understand the
ecological resource and historical legacy. Then, we tried to find a suitable
management of this region.
2. Study Methods and Processes:
The region around Nantzuhsienchi Forestry Road is composed of
Compartment No. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 42, 43, and 64 of Yushan Working Circle,
Chiayi Forest District Office. We used aerial photographs of this region that were
taken from an aircraft by Agricultural and Forestry Aerial Survey Institute in 1979
and 2002 to examine land cover type and it’s dynamic. We made profiles of
floristic structure based on forest type and plant composition along
Nantzuhsienchi Forestry Road and marked the position of permanent-plot of
temperate evergreen broad-leaved forest. To show animal and plant resource, we
collected related papers and had field investigation. We call on aborigines,
foresters, forestry patrols and Jelly Fig pluckers to understand the culture and
historical legacies of this region and mark the positions of legacies on maps.
According to data of field survey and paper review, we proposed a conservation
and interpretation system applicable to this region.
3. Important Findings:
Plant ecological resource:
There was a complete forest in Compartment No. 26, 27, 28, 29, and 43.
Although the forest come to pieces in Meilan Saddle, but the forest area extended
gradually by 0.34% every year in this region. Vegetation included Tsuga-Picea
zone, Cypress zone and Broad-leaved forest zone along Nantzuhsienchi Forestry
Road, and it could separate into 27 Dominance-type. We found 25 Picea forests of
different sizes in this study region. 4 larger forest of 51.5% total Picea forest area
concentrated in the region between Mt. Guangdongwan and Mt. Jiuxi. Species
inventory shows 492 species of vascular plants along Nantzuhsienchi Forestry
Road, which belonging to 295 genus and 113 families. 24 species of them are
rare.
Animal ecological resource:
31 species of mammals belonging to 15 families were recorded. Macaca
cyclopis, Martes flavigula chrysospila, Paguma larvata taivana, Muntiacus
reevesi micrurus, Cervus unicolor swinhoei and Naemorhedus swinhoei are rare
species. Selenarctos thibetanus formosanus and Neofelis nebulosa are endangered
species. There were 54 species of birds belonging to 19 families. Spizaetus
nipalensis, Lophura swinhoii, Symaticus Mikado, Ketupa flavipes, Striz aluco and
Strix leptogrammica are rare species. 8 species (Accipiter trivirgatus etc.) of them
are endangered. Species inventory of insects, amphibians and reptiles were lack in
this region.
Culture and historical legacies
1) Nantzuhsienchi Ranger Station being composed of 9 buildings was an
office to carry out lumbering and afforestation along Nantzuhsienchi Forestry
Road from 1953 to 1989. This station was closed after 1989. This disused station
became a dormitory for forester, road maintaining worker and researcher. 2) Jelly
Fig was plucked from October to February in the Chinese calendar. The operation
areas including Compartment No. 1, 3, 30, 31, 33 and 35 of Yushan Working
Circle were not part of Yushan National Park. There might be illegal felled tree
and hunting within National Park due to present Jelly Fig plucking operation. 3)
There could be a legacy of camphor extracting hut near 10 km of Nantzuhsienchi
Forestry Road. The area of this legacy was approximately 10×10×πm2. A
extracting stove (60×30×30cm3) constructing by a flagstone was found in this legacy.
4. Main Suggestions and Recommendations:
1) There were rich ecological resources along Nantzuhsienchi Forestry Road, and therefore we proposed that Compartment No. 27, 28, 29, 43, 42 and 64 of Yushan Working Circle should be managed as ecologically protected area.
Meilan Saddle was not developed after Yushan National Park being established, then, forest ecology of this region regenerated gradually. We also suggested that Meilan recreational area should be treated as ecological preserve.
Compartment No. 24 and 25 closed to Mt. Morrison-climbing pathway and
Tataka recreational area, and Stream Nantzuhsien divided forests of
Compartment No. 24 and 25 from the other. We proposed general restricted area in Compartment No. 24 and 25 could continue. The complete nature forest of this region was easy to reach, so we suggested this region could look on as ‘Scientific reserve’.
2) Nantzuhsienchi Ranger Station already reached the standard of long-term research station, because there was a 15 hectares permanent plot of temperate broad-leaved forest beginning to establish near the station. So, we suggested all building of Nantzuhsienchi Ranger Station should reconstruct as Nantzuhsienchi conservation station and provide a place for narrator training.
3) Inventory of plant species were already completely. We proposed that every subject of forest permanent plot, including forest structure, function and dynamics, should be studied.
4) There were not any information about insect, amphibians and reptiles. We suggested that animal species inventory of these three categories could be proceeded.
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