The concept of “national parks” may be traced back to George Catlin, an American artist. In
1832, on a trip to the Dakotas Catlin worried about the impact of America's westward expansion on Indian
civilization, wildlife and wilderness. He was struck by their way of life, especially how they merged
"man", "beast"s and nature. From his observations, Catlin initiated the concepts of land usage in his
writing: “by some great protecting policy of government . . . in a magnificent park . . . A nation's park,
containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty!”Over more than a
century, these concepts have evolved and undergone modification.
In addition, there has been a change from an anthropocentric attitude, where people use resources
for their own benefit to a more "biocentric" ethics that places importance on simplifying one's own needs
to conserve nature and the environment. The simultaneous existence of both has lead to human rights,
animal rights and environmental justice movements.