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玉山國家公園

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玉山
• 中文計畫名稱
玉山國家公園南二段地區中大型哺乳動物調查暨台灣水鹿族群監測計畫
• 計畫英文名稱
• 計畫編號
1162
• 方式
委託辦理
• 執行機構
台灣生態學會
• 年度
096 年
• 主持人 李玲玲
• 中文關鍵字
台灣水鹿、紅外線自動相機、痕跡調查法、糞堆計數法、角週期
• 英文關鍵字
Formosan sambar (Rusa unicolor swinhoii)、infrared-triggered cameras、tracks and signs survey、pellet-group-count、antler cycle
• 中文摘要
一、研究緣起與方法

在許多國家,大型草食獸族群增加而致對生態系產生重大影響的案例相當多。玉山國家公園中央山脈南二段山區的台灣水鹿族群,近年來有增加的跡象,且已對於高山森林及其他動物產生些許影響,為了後續評估與監測其影響程度,乃針對本區域進行相關生物資源調查與建置台灣水鹿族群監測體系。本計劃利用痕跡調查法及紅外線自動相機監測法調查中央山脈南二段向陽至轆轆山沿線的中大型哺乳動物組成、分布、活動模式及棲地利用概況,並以穿越帶糞堆計數法針對本區域步道沿線1公里範圍內台灣水鹿的族群密度進行評估並建立監測體系。以健全玉山國家公園生物多樣性保育的基礎資料,作為國家公園經營管理策略的參考。

二、重要發現

本計劃期間共記錄中大型哺乳動物6科9種,以台灣水鹿在本區域的族群相對密度最高,為本區域最優勢的哺乳動物。穿越帶糞堆計數結果,南二段向陽到轆轆山步道沿線1公里範圍內台灣水鹿的族群密度約為0.77~0.90隻/公頃,為目前國內台灣水鹿族群密度最高的區域之一。高密度的水鹿族群已經對本區域森林更新產生影響。

透過數位型紅外線自動相機,本研究記錄大量台灣水鹿泥浴打滾的連續鏡頭,發現僅有硬角期的雄鹿會進行泥浴打滾,每次平均持續3~5分鐘,有時可長達12~15分鐘。台灣水鹿雄鹿具有明顯的角週期,約於每年1~3月間解角,4~6月間茸角發育,6~8月間茸角蛻茸硬化,8~12月雄鹿幾乎全為硬角,隔年1月開始有雄鹿解角,開啟另一個角週期。而本區域台灣水鹿的繁殖期推測為3~8月,並以5~6月為幼鹿?生高峰。

三、主要建議事項

玉山國家公園南二段向陽至轆轆山沿線區域台灣水鹿族群密度相當高,其對當地森林植被更新、結構及組成已經產生明顯的效應,預測未來影響層面會逐漸擴及其他棲息於森林生態系的動物組成與數量,成為南二段區域高山森林生態系的關鍵性物種。建議管理處或林務局應趕快儘速邀請動、植物相關學者進行現場會勘,選擇10~20處的林地進行試驗性圍籬樣區建置,配合水鹿族群密度監測,深入了解高密度台灣水鹿族群對於植物個體、森林更新、組成、結構、其他動物族群、組成及高山森林生態系的影響,並進一步找出水鹿啃食樹皮的原因,以為未來規劃水鹿族群及其棲地經營管理策略之參考。
• 英文摘要
Cases of overabundant herbivores affecting ecosystems have been reported in many countries. Along the 2nd section of southern Central Ridge Trail in Yushan National Park, increasing population of Formosan sambar (Rusa unicolor swinhoii) has impacted forest and other animals in this alpine ecosystem. To evaluate the effect of Formosan sambar, it is important to survey the biological resources in this area and set up a system of monitoring population of Formosan sambar. In this project, tracks and signs of large mammals was surveyed along the hiking trails and infrared-triggered cameras was set up to monitor the presence, distribution, activity pattern and habitat use of large mammals in the areas between Siangyang and Lulu Mountain. Besides, strip transects was established and pellet-group-count was conducted to monitor the population density of Formosan sambar. These results will help supplement the database of biodiversity in Yushan National Park and provide important information in planning of biodiversity conservational strategies in the future.
This study recorded a total of 9 large mammalian species in 6 families in the area between Siangyang and Lulu Mountain. Among these species, Formosan sambar, with a high density 0.77~0.90 sambar / ha estimated from pellet-group-count, was the most dominant species and had a large impact on the regeneration of coniferous saplings in this region.
With the aid of digital infrared-triggered cameras, we recorded a large number of image files about the wallowing behavior of Formosan sambar. In these files, we found only bucks with hard antlers showed wallowing behavior, but not the does or bucks with velvet. The average duration time of wallowing behavior sequence was 3-5 minutes, but it may last 12-15 minutes. From the data recorded by infrared-triggered cameras, we also found that bucks of Formosan sambar had a seasonal antler cycle, and the breeding season of Formosan sambar was from March to August with a peak in May and June.
The high population density of Formosan sambar had a large impact on the coniferous saplings in these regions. We predict that they will be the potential keystone species in alpine forest ecosystem and will have key effect on the structure, tree species composition and the fauna of the alpine forest ecosystems in the future. We suggest the management authorities continually monitor the long-term population dynamics of Formosan sambar and their effects on the alpine forest ecosystems in this region.
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