• 中文計畫名稱
玉山國家公園台灣黑熊族群生態學及保育研究(1/4)
• 計畫英文名稱
The Study of Population Ecology and the Development of Conservation Plan for Formosan Black Bears in Yushan National Park(1/4)
• 計畫編號
1145
• 方式
委託研究
• 執行機構
中華民國國家公園學會
• 年度
095 年
• 主持人 黃美秀
• 中文關鍵字
台灣黑熊、棲地利用、玉山國家公園、堅果產量、排遺偵測犬
• 英文關鍵字
Formosan black bears, habitat use, Yushan National Park,acorn production, scat detection dog
• 中文摘要
黑熊於玉山國家公園區域的海拔分布從300 至3700 公尺不等,84%分布於海拔500-2500 公尺範圍,於500 公尺以下及2000 公尺以上出現的百分比例皆較樣區所佔面積比例為低。黑熊的分布海拔(300-3700 公尺)有季節性及個體差異,一般春季似乎較傾向活動於較低海拔地區,夏季的活動海拔範圍較廣,秋冬季則偏高。無線電追蹤定位點及非無線電追蹤熊位點皆無出現於農地,二者於各林型之出現百分比例,皆與研究樣區內林型組成的百分比例呈顯著差異,於針闊葉混合林及水域出現的頻度皆較於預期值高。有熊記錄地點的坡度隨坡度增加而百分比例漸減,2/3 皆小於30 度,而且朝東坡面的百分比例59%)亦比預期值稍高。
青剛櫟落果前以目視掃瞄527 棵樹顯示,樹上沒有觀察到堅果者佔19%,仔細搜尋後可發現少量堅果者佔34%,有一些堅果者佔27%,堅果產量不錯者佔13%,堅果產量十分豐盛僅佔5%。此結果(Garves’修正指數)與30 秒內所掃瞄到的果實數量成顯著相關,(r=0.91, P<0.001),顯示今年樣區青剛櫟的結果量不佳。
秋季自動照相機共12 月台,累計5071 總工作小時,拍攝12 種可辨識的較大型哺乳動物,累計269 隻/群有效個體照片,整體OI 值(每1,000 個工作小時中,所拍得的個體數或群體數)為53.04。食肉目動物的OI 值以台灣黑熊(OI=0.79,n=4 張)最高;有蹄類動物則以台灣野豬(OI = 10.45)最高,山羌(OI= 7.30)次之。
熊排遺偵測犬經密集訓練後已完成室內、戶外、野地山區的訓練,可以尋找一個月內新舊程度不一的野外黑熊排遺,正確率達95%以上,尋獲排遺的效率估計為一般人的2-3 倍。偵測犬於發現目標物時,頭會朝目標物站立或趴下,靜止不動等候領犬員接近,但若看不到領犬員時,則會跑回領犬員身旁表現發現獵物的行為。偵測犬於作業時可以聽從領犬員的指示,面臨其他登山客、其他犬隻或動物時,並沒有表現出特別的注意或興趣。整體訓練成果顯示該熊排遺偵測犬已達成訓練的目標,並適應台灣山區的搜尋環境。
• 英文摘要
Based on the importance of conserving endangered species and of long-term
ecological research, the overall objective was designed to extend the
previous study (1998-2002) on the ecology of wild Formosan black bears
(Ursus thibetanus formosanus) in Yushan National Park. Through survey,
interviews, and literature reviews, we collected 588 bear occurrences,
covering 155 grids of 1*1 km grid squares where 83% were located within
Yushan National Park. Although bears occurrences ranged from 300 m to
3,800 m in elevation, they were largely located in 500-2,500 m (84%) and
occurred in conifer-broadleaf mixed forest and riparian areas more often
than expected. There seemed no significant differences of occurrences in
elevation among seasons but in autumn, about 70% of occurrence was
detected in elevation of 1000-1500 m. The visual survey of the ring-cupped
oak (Cyclobalanopsis glauca) indicated a poor mast-production year, with 53%
of trees with none or few acorns. We identified 12 species of mammals out
of 269 effective animal photos (OI value = 53.04) and the most
representative species for carnivores and ungulates were Formosan black
bears and Sus scrofa, respectively. Additionally, a bear scat detecting dog
was trained and the detection accuracy rate was more than 95%. This
suggested the potential of applying such a new research technique in
studying rare, elusive species in rugged and dense forests. In order to
enhance our further understanding of the complicated interaction between
bears and forest ecosystems, we suggested an extensive and continuous
monitoring program on animal-plant interaction.
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